The official newsletter for the Pacific Northwest Cochlear Implant Club.
Note: this newsletter has been edited in spots to keep downloading time reasonable. Sections cut are indicated in italics. To get the entire issue, click on the Subscription link just below.
Volume 8 Issue 2 Winter 1998 - 1999
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Enjoying Nucleus 24
By Dawn Pomeroy, Chehalis, WA
My name is Dawn and I have had an hearing impairment all my life, although we didn't know it until I was seven. I remember the first hearing aid I got and I loved it. I don't remember how many others I had except the dual aids, which I hated and refused to wear.
Then came a number of years when I went without a hearing aid. In January of 1994 I caught some kind of virus and, for a week, I lost all my hearing. I did get about half of it back, but since then my hearing continued to get worse.
I began looking into an implant in early 1997, but it wasn't until a year later that my hearing was bad enough to qualify. Without a doubt, that had been the most frustrating year of my life.
Then I had to wait for approval. I wanted to get the Nucleus 24, but it had still been considered an experimental device at the time. I decided to go ahead and get the 22 when I got approval for that. A week before my surgery, I got the good news: FDA finally certified the 24 and I got that one instead.
My surgery was Mid-July, performed by Dr. Charles Mangham in Seattle, and I was hooked up September 3 by Tristan Holmberg and Jennifer DeCastro.
At first I felt, rather than heard, the sounds. But before the mapping was through I could hear the differences between them. When they were finished, they switched me live, but it took me a moment to realize I was hearing their voices.
The first words I understood was
my grandma asking if I could hear her. When my dad asked the same question in the waiting room, I said, "yes", then started crying. I couldn't believe I was hearing again.
I will have had my fourth mapping by the time this newsletter gets out. I'm really enjoying hearing very much. I'm constantly being amazed by what I can hear now, like birds chirping and falling rain. There are words I still have trouble understanding, but I can understand more of what people say to me. Although the music sounds rather guttural, I can follow along with the words to songs I remember.
I want to thank Dr. Mangham, my audiologists and the staff at the Seattle Ear Clinic for helping me to hear again. They are all the best.
Nucleus 24 Same Day
By Kathy Crow, Silverdale
James M. Crow, (5 yrs) and W. Dakota Crow, (3 yrs) were implanted June 2, 1998 at Children's Hospital in Seattle, by Dr. Kathleen Sie with support from Madigan Army Hospital, Major Jonathan Perkins, M.D., Army & Major Joseph Ruegemer, M.D., USAF.
Yes! We had both boys implanted on the same day, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. We know that this makes for a very long day, but it keeps from having to deal with the fear factor in the other one.
Jill Bargones, the boy's Audiologist, with the rest of the surgery team were confident that they would benefit from the Nucleus 24 implant.
After the six weeks to heal from the surgery, the boys were "turned on", on July 13, 1998.
Dakota was very surprised and Dad watched his son's jaw drop and his eyes bug out, then after a few minutes he laughed and smiled.
James was very subtle in his reactions and with a slight smile on his face; he looked at Jill with wonder.
It took right at about two weeks to turn on all the channels and have the boys hearing. On the third day of work, James started laughing at all the people in the room with him. (They were watching so close and intent.) Every time he looked at the crowd he cracked up. (It took a child to see just how goofy adults can be.)
Ed & I decided in the beginning to give the boys a total communication package and let them decide which way they want to go when they get older.
Before the implants, James was limited in his oral use. Dakota was started so very early that it made a difference, he was at least trying to vocalize more.
Since the implants James & Dakota are in the baby SCREAMING stage. (We as parents are just, THRILLED with this!!!) They are playing with their vocal sounds high and low. Dakota has started to do the baby babble with noise. James is subtle and listen more, but we have heard him play with his voice, when he's playing in his room.
Now that the boy's have had their implants for three month, we definitely see a difference in the boys. They will turn to their names, stop when told, listen for the phone (and try to answer it), can follow some simple commands and can hear the dog bark. The most we hoped for from the implants was to be able to hear cars and other thing that could hurt them. Everything we have gotten beyond that has been just fantastic.
Problems that we have noticed is that the Nucleus 24 weren't designed to be ruff and tumble. Dakota has been putting it to the test, so far he has managed to jerk out several cords, broke a battery case. (Don't ask) It needs to be sent in an impact proof case for the extreme adventurer. This has proven to be a great budget killer and can put you in debt very quickly.
Ed & I don't regret our decision and will work very hard with the boys. No matter which direction they choose, we feel that we have given them every opportunity to achieve their goals.
By Sarah Marker, Manson, WA
[Editor's note: I sent a letter to Sarah asking her for her input. I listed certain questions. I am repeating my request to her so that you better understand her reply. Following is what I asked her:
How long were you deaf before the implant?
Did you wear hearing aids?
What was your main method of communication?
Who performed the Surgery?
Who is your Audiologist?
What date did you get your processor?
What did it sound like when first connected?
How many mapping sessions have you had?
Do you understand words? If so, how long after you received your processor before you were able to understand words?
What do you like best about the implant? Least?
Do you have both the body and the BTE processor? If so, how do they compare?
Anything else you want to say.
End of Quote.
Following is her response]
I was deaf for 15 years and 9 months. That's my whole life. I wore hearing aids and was verbal all my life. I never knew sign language or the deaf culture. I didn't know anyone who was deaf. I was a deaf person in a hearing world. I went to public schools where everyone heard and spoke, same for me. I got along well with my hearing aids, and everyone could understand me as I talked. I was friends with everyone and could get A's without aids or any kind of special education. Everyone I knew was hearing and treated me as an equal, because I could talk back and understand each other. They learned that the moment we first met. They sometimes tell me they forget I couldn't hear, literally, which was true.
They weren't just being polite, and that made me feel good.
I didn't want the Cochlear implant. I felt that my life was good. My deafness didn't complicate anything. My deafness couldn't hold me back.
The first time I backed out. But the thing is that it made me feel bad, because everyone was so excited. So I got my second chance and took it.
I had surgery, my 10th one, by Dr. Charles Mangham. Jennifer DeCastro is my audiologist. I have not received my processor yet. I will on the 19th, 20th, and 21st of October, in Seattle, by the sound. I'm sure I will not be surprised by the sounds I will hear, for I could hear with my hearing aids. With my aids I heard the telephone, would usually talk on it and stuff with only four percent of hearing in my left and one percent on my right. But I will hear MORE, of this I'm sure.
Without a cochlear implant I can understand words, can hear them, and can speak them although I never got my processor or cochlear and has been deaf since birth. So, I'm sure I will be able to hearing and understand words fairly fast.
Until my mapping is done, I've nothing to like nor dislike about my cochlear yet.
[Editor's note: I am very proud of Sarah and the courage she took in writing this letter. She has expressed a feeling that touched me deeply. If I get her first reaction to the processor before press time, I will print it. I am sure all of us will be waiting for an update from her for our next newsletter.]
Life is Much Better
By Reba Moen, Monroe, WA
It was nice seeing you again. I remember before I got my implant you wrote to me: "We do not measure our success by comparing to each other, but to what we had before implant to what it is like a year later."
It is seven months since my hook up and I am so happy that I made the decision to have the implant. I was as a tough decision. I'm hearing things not heard for too many years.
Last week I was outside during a storm and I heard the thunder. I just stood there and listened to it "roar." I never thought I would ever use a regular phone again. I'm now talking to grandkids that I never ever talked to on the pone before. My grown children refuse to let me use the TTY with them. I do not understand every word, but I do OK. I do not understand words on the radio, but I can tell one musical instrument from another. If I can see the speaker on TV I can understand fair.
Work is so much nicer. I can hear IVs "beep" when I am in the hallway. [Editor's note: She works in a hospital.] I attend staff meetings and make sure I can see the speakers face. Speech reading is so much easier. I talk to the patients much more. I always tried to hide my hearing aid, but I talk about this, show people and am proud to have it.
I'm so thankful to Jenny Stork who got things going, Dr. Gates for surgery, Dr. Sue Sanborn and Kevin Franck at the U of W hearing center who do the programs, and my kids who took turns driving me to Seattle. Everyone has been so supportive.
Gordon, I thank you for getting me started in SHHH. It is the thing I look forward to!!. Thanks for your great support.
Do what you want with this but in a few words &ndash I'm so happy to have the implant. My life is much better!!!
[Editor's note: Reba has the Nucleus 24. I have known her for about 7 years. Reba has been hard of hearing most of her life. Prior to the implant there was little verbal conversation between us as she just could not lip read me and I do not sign. Two weeks ago I saw her for the first time since she was implanted and it was hard to believe what I witnessed. She conversed with such ease. That smile on her face is something you can't wipe away. She is truly a changed person.]
We are delighted by the length of our "Congratulations" column this quarter. Hopefully we will hear from all of them and publish their stories next quarter.
Tom Cunningham, Lake Oswego, OR. Tom received his implant at Oregon Health Science University. Surgery was performed by Dr. Schleuning. He does not state which model he has. His hookup date is set for October 21. Following is his post surgery report:
"I am feeling pretty good since the operation but am still rather wobbly in walking. I like to play tennis and have tried to get back on the courts. I find that I cannot focus on the ball when I have to run it down. That leaves out singles, but I can manage pretty well in a game of doubles. Do you know if this is a typical after affect. I am concerned that it does not seem to be getting much better after 3 1/2 weeks after surgery."
I advised Tom that most of those who have written to me with problems, find that the problem clears up within 30 to 60 days after surgery. If you have any difficulties you should inform your doctor.
Chase Fanning, Everett, WA. Chase is the son of Steve and Tami Fanning. I do not know what type he has or where he was implanted.
Christie Frassi, Windsor, CA. She will receive her Clarion Implant at UCSF in San Francisco. At the present time she is awaiting insurance approval and hopes to have surgery in November.
Eleanor Sukraw, Klamath Falls, OR. She was implanted with the Nucleus 24 by Dr. Black at the Good Samaritan Hospital in Portland on October 14. We hope to have more information in our next newsletter.
Jennifer Gonzales, Vancouver, WA. Jennifer is 8 years old and was implanted with the Clarion by Dr. Backous at Virginia Mason in Seattle. Her audiologist is Hyla Dobaj.
Her Sister Betzuira is scheduled for surgery October 30th at Virginia Mason. Dr. Backous will perform the surgery and Hyla Dobaj is also working with her. At press time the family is still undecided as to which device to implant.
Carla Drennen, Kelso, WA. Carla is 14 years old and received the Clarion implant on October 2nd. Dr. Backous, Virginia Mason, Seattle, performed the surgery. Her audiologist is Hyla Dobaj.
Charlene Mulligan, Bremerton, WA. Charlene selected the Med &ndashEL Combi 40+ and was implanted by Dr. Backous, Virginia Mason, Seattle. Her audiologist is Carol Brazil.
Fran Czarnecki, Atkinson, NH. scheduled for surgery September 23rd at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Memorial Hospital in Hanover, NH. She did not state which implant she had selected. She states, " I have been profoundly hard of hearing for the past two years and I am looking forward to any improvement (and quietly hoping for a major breakthrough). Just to hear my grandchildren's corny jokes would be a delight.
Jane Richardson, St. Louis MO. Jane has selected the Nucleus 24 and will have her surgery October 26th at the Barnes Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, MO. Jane grew up in the Auburn, WA area. She is attending graduate school in St. Louis and intends to return to the Pacific Northwest when she completes her schooling.
We hope to hear from all of them will share their stories for our next Newsletter.
Readers Have Their Say
Selecting an Implant for Son
By Joanne Appelgate Hillsboro, OR
We are very impressed with your Pacific Northwest Cochlear Implant Club Newsletter!
My husband and I are in the process of deciding about the implantation process for our son who is profoundly deaf. Our audiologist gave us a copy of the newsletter. Our son is currently 16 months old. He has worn hearing aids since he was 10 weeks old. People always ask us how we knew he was deaf so young. When he was 3 weeks old, we suspected he could not hear because he did not respond to loud noises by startling like most babies. At his one month check-up we asked the pediatrician. With a relatively easy pregnancy and delivery with no complications and a very healthy baby, it took a little convincing, but the doctor listened to us and agreed to have a screening test done. That test confirm our suspicions, so an ABR was performed. He had no hearing below 9OdB. We have since teamed how fortunate we are to have had such responsible pediatricians! (Thank you to Nancy Johnson, MD and Sandra Vithauer, MD).
Thanks to his early diagnosis and hearing aids, and the excellent education we as a family have received from the Infant Hearing Resource (Valerie Schuyler), he is a very verbal child and is developing speech beyond what anyone would have expected. We are fairly certain that he would do even better with an implant, since he has no measurable hearing beyond 2000 htz. It has been a confusing process as we have been trying to decide whether to implant, which device, and which doctor group. I suppose choices are a blessing, but at the same time, they can be mind boggling. We have been wading through the material from the implant companies, the interact, books, as well as calling and meeting with various doctors and parents.
Fortunately, we finally have come to the opinion that either implant would do the job (each having it's own minor positives and negatives), that all of the doctors in our area are more than qualified to do the surgery well, and that our son would probably be able to expect a decibel improvement in addition to a frequency improvement with the implant over his hearing aids.
We are still deciding on the device and the doctor and often joke about flipping a coin. This is an incredible decision to make as a parent, as many of your readers can probably attest. We want to give our son the best chance at functioning in a hearing world. We want him to be as unencumbered as possible by his lack of hearing. We believe that an implant is his best option. He is eligible for the implant as of Oct. 3 1, so in the meantime, we prepare. We enjoy listening to the words and the attempts at words that he does produce, and we wonder if he will continue talking immediately following the implant, if his vocalizing will change, or if he might actually stop talking for an extended period of time as some parents have told us is possible until his brain learns to incorporate the new sound. As a mom I can't imagine loosing those precious sounds even for a while, but if that is what it takes, I guess that's the potential price to pay. We are filled with a combination of anticipation and anxiety, but we appreciate hearing from other parents such as Susie Jones, Boise, ID in the Fall Newsletter, who give us hope.
Our son has taken this all in stride to this point, so we are sure he will do fine. He is a happy, delightful child. But still as parents, all we can do is make the best decisions we can with the information that is available and give the rest over to God.
We will let you know how our son does prior to your Spring newsletter. Thank you for this resource.
Enjoys Implant and Newsletter
By M. June Knudson, Roy, UT
Let me tell you how much I enjoy them and hearing about all the latest technology and new people who are receiving implants. I will never forget what a difference it made in my life when I first got mine.
I too am so thankful for all of the Drs. nurses and Audiologists that are so helpful to all of us and do so much to help us learn to hear again. It is a marvelous world that we live in and I do hope that if my children and grandchildren have to go through what I have that they will take advantage of all of these wonderful inventions. I'm sure by that time there will be that many more.
I feel that we are really blessed to live in this day and age of so many miracles. Do hope all is well with you and we do appreciate your words of wisdom so much and all of the things you put in your newsletter. We are fortunate to have someone like you to do this for us.
Especially Children's Stories
By Don & Marie Kulla
Brush Prairie, WA
We most certainly DO wish to keep receiving the Pacific Northwest Cochlear Implant Club Newsletter. As soon as it arrives in our mailbox I sit down to relax, read and enjoy every page. If Don gets it first I can hardly wait for him to finish!
The newsletter is like hearing from family. It's a huge network of support in this area of common interest that we share. Where there are frustrations or problems, the solutions might come from the words of another. Some are encouraged to go for the implant by reading about the success of others.
It is so exciting to read about the children and what dramatic changes they and their families experience. The newsletter makes our day.
Enjoys the Letters
By Elinore B. Doyle
Grants Pass, OR
It is so exciting to read the letters that come to you regarding "changed lives" as a result of an individual's cochlear implant. Most gratifying of all is to learn a child has been given the opportunity to live in a hearing world.
All of our news is not quite so positive as Lionel suffered a stroke July 29th. He was released to home care late on July 31st and a therapist has come three times so far. His left side is weak; he can use a walker around the house as long as I hang on to back trouser waist. We're hoping for continued improvement of course.
Again, our special "thanks" for all you do to help the hearing impaired.
[Editor's note: We are sorry to learn of Lionel's illness. The day this letter was written they were celebrating his 85th anniversary. Lionel was one of our first members when we started 8 years ago and has been a strong supporter ever since.]
Age 85 and enjoying Implant
By Lawrence Louck
Please continue sending the Cochlear newsletter to me.
I am 85 years old now an wearing my spectra 22. I'm still coping with increasing vertigo problems and have had to stop my usually (for years) daily walk. But getting along OK otherwise.
[Larry was implanted shortly after we began. Up till recently he has been walking 4 miles a day. I hope that if I reach that age I will be able to enjoy life as he is. People keep telling me they are too old for an implant. First of all, I have seen people near 90 that would put people 20 years younger to shame. They are still so active. I personally would hate to grow old without being able to carry on a conversation. An implant can make life so much more enjoyable. No one is too old to enjoy hearing again.
Implant Helps During Time of Sorrow
By Elizabeth Paine, Fairfield, CA
You are doing such a wonderful service for so many people scattered all over, that you will probably never meet or hear from, yet you have a part in changing their lives. God bless you and keep you well. I hope you take care not to let the burdens you carry overwhelm your stamina so you can "carry on" for some time yet.
My brother, Alden Douglass, proposed sending you part of what I wrote to him when trying out the BEAMformer for Spectra 22., but he must not have done so. I decided to keep it because it's helpful toning down loud noisy areas, besides allowing me to hear quiet voices sometimes on the opposite side of my implant in quiet places.
I know that I have not told you that my dear husband of 48 years died in April, very suddenly, from a viral invasion of his heart. Adjustment to managing alone is difficult, but Just imagine what it would be like if I had not received an implant!
[Editor note: I am printing this as it has a powerful message. In my work with SHHH I get many calls where someone lost their hearing and turned their communication over to their partner. Then suddenly the partner is gone and they no longer have the ability to communicate for themselves. If they had only done as Elizabeth had done, while losing a love one is never easy, at least it is endurable, if we can communicate for ourselves. If you know of a person that is depending on someone else, please let them know that the implant might be the help and hope they are searching for. It is always better to prepare ourselves in case the day ever comes when we have to do our own communicating.
I also mentioned the BEAMformer because several of you have sent me messages. I hope we have an update by our spring edition.
By Adelle Steptoe, Milwaukie, OR
Love your newsletter. We always read the whole thing. Keep up the good work.
Jerry is doing great, loves his implant!
Picture of Kids on Internet
By Ed Crow, Silverdale, WA
My name is Ed Crow, and both of my sons received the Nucleus 24 implants in June at Children's Hospital in Seattle. I would like to be on your list for receiving the newsletter.
A picture of my kid is on the personal web page:
[Editor note: See related story on Page 2. If you have e-mail and access to the internet, you can see a picture of James and Dakota along with their audiologist. It is a great picture!]
Pouches for Processors
Bill Belew, Cochlear Corporation advises that an implantee informed them that she had a leather pouch made for her and just loved it. If anyone is interested in contact this company (sorry, do not have the name of the company), they can send an e-mail to Andrew Gilton. E-mail:
If anyone does contact them and likes what they have, please let us know and we will share it with the rest of our readers in the next newsletter.
Implant So Worthwhile
By Alden Douglas
Federal Way, WA
Thank you for continuing to send me the newsletter of the Cochlear Implant Club.
I am always thankful that you demonstrated to me that an implant was worthwhile so that now I can again hear.
Child Enjoys Implant
By Daiva Harris, Lake Oswego, OR
My daughter Jordan was implanted in November 1996 at age 7 after wearing aids since 9 months. She has a profound hearing loss and is being educated orally. She's doing great!
By Alva J Lowe, Worland, WY
I enjoyed reading about the new Med-EL which I presently wear to great success.
[Editor's note: We would love to hear from you telling us when and where you received it and how it is helping you.]
Implanted February 1998
We have received word from Glenna Yancey, Ogden, UT. that she was implanted in February 1998. We hope to hear from her as to where she was implanted as well as type of implant she has. As you can see by these letters, it is the sharing of information that makes this newsletter so enjoyable to others.
Young Son to be Implanted
We have received word from Lisa Bodner, Vancouver, WA. That there 21 month old son is scheduled to have an implant in 6-8 weeks. We hope to have more information from her for our Spring newsletter.
Thanks for Newsletter
By Mary Emby
Mountlake Terrace, WA and
Leonore S. Tearle, Bandon, OR
Mary writes: "Just want to say "thanks" again for the newsletter. It is very interesting to hear how other people are doing, and to know that your are doing OK yourself. "
Leonore writes: "I enjoy reading your newsletters. Please continue sending them to me.
Cordless Telephone Questions
By Madeline Rahamim, Phoenix, AZ
It was great meeting you at the picnic in Seattle. It was my *first* CI support group I have ever attended and they do not have such a group in Phoenix.
I read your note about the Audex cordless phone as I've been considering buying one. I haven't actually seen/tried one and wanted to order it for trial. I have the Clarion S Series and I didn't follow what you wrote about the "audio mix" (what's that?) and about the patch cord cutting off the head mic?
Are you saying it works like the Cochlear telephone adapter (which I use) that plugs into the phone and SP and cuts off the head mic and gives you only telephone sound?? Or are you saying that some special mic is required and comes with the Audex cordless?
[Editor's note: The later version of the Nucleus 22 Spectra (S/N 34000 and above) and Nucleus 24 allows that if you use the correct patch cord and plug something into your processor, that it does not deactivate the head mic. I believe the Med-El also offers this feature. Can a Med-El user please verify?. If there are any of the Clarion models that offer this feature, I would also appreciate hearing from a Clarion user. To me it is one of the best improvements that has come along. What it allows me to do is to plug into a FM or Infrared system (using the correct patch cord) and I can still carry on a conversation with the person sitting next to me while I am waiting for the program to start or can hear my own voice if I want to talk myself.] My Cochlear cord does not work with my Audex phone nor does it work with the Telex FM SR-50. So I have to use patch cords that do cut off the head mic. It is very frustrating after getting used to having the head mic open. Does anyone have a solution? Audex did send me to sample cords but they need some redesigning.
Telephones & Patch Cords
One of the most frustrating things, to implant users, is the lack of information supplied by the manufactures as to what can be used with the implant. Most of us learn from each other or from the internet of the devices than can make our implant more enjoyable. Some of the implant centers are very open as to what works and what does not. Others will supply you with only the information that the manufactures supplied to them.
With the telephone, almost all of us, regardless of brand, were once told to use the suction cup thing. While a few find it to be satisfactory, the majority of those that have communicated with me, do not. With the standard phone, most of us find the Cochlear TLP-102 as the most satisfactory. Many Clarion users also tell me that it works very well with their implant. I have also recently heard that Med-El users are also using it but this I cannot confirm. Some may tell you that you don't need any patch cord, that all you have to do is put the phone up to your head piece. While that might work for some, most inform me it is not the natural way to hold the phone and that the patch cord makes phone calls more relaxing.
Many implant users prefer the Audex Cordless and Cellular phone with their patch cord. I personally enjoy using the Audex Cordless over any other phone. But with both the TLP-102 and the Audex patch cord it cuts off my head mic. I want to find a patch cord that will allow me to talk on the phone and yet hear the door bell ring. So far I have not been able to. If any of you readers have the answer, please let me know.
I have found FM and Infrared equipment allows for me to go to church and sit anywhere and still enjoy the service. My Cochlear patch cord works great with William Sound and Phonic Ear Easy Listener. But it does not work with the Telex SR-50. But I can use my Comtek patch cord with all three. In fact my Comtek patch cord is the only one I have found that I can use with the Telex SR-50. But the Comtek patch cord cuts off the head mic. So when I attend a church services and use the Comtek cord, I only hear the singing of those in front of mikes. If any one uses the Telex SR-50 and has a patch cord that does not cut off the head mic, I would appreciate hearing from you and will publish it in the next newsletter.
Using the telephone or assistive devices can take a lot of time and practice. One lady told me she dialed 800 number with recordings for almost a year listening. At first she understood nothing. But with time she began to understand and now uses the voice phone full time.
Many people use a Walkman to listen to stories and music. Again, it might be mumble-jumble for a long time. But learning to listen is part of our "learning to hear."
One of our readers listened to national radio in the bus on the way to work. Again, it was difficult at first, but through listening he did begin to understand what they were talking about.
I am especially interested in hearing from Nucleus 24, Med-EL and Clarion users as to the patch cords they use with assistive devices and telephones so I can share the information with our readership.
I hope all of you will share your frustrations and success with us. What did you do to make the implant more successful in you life? What are the devices and the patch cords you find most beneficial to you? Don't worry about you spelling or grammar. The sharing you do might be of benefit to someone else struggling with the same problem you have solved.
I do want to stress that the use (or lack of use) of the telephone or other devices is not a measurement in how successful we are. The only measurement that any of us should ever use is What did we have before compared to what we have now? Any improvement in our ability to communicate with our family and friends is the only measurement of success we should ever use. Some of the most "successful" implant users I know cannot use the telephone. But their lives have improved dramatically over what they had before.
Gordon L Nystedt
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